FLOW X-ray diamond recovery machines are based on X-ray induced
luminescence of diamonds. Although this basic principle goes back to the
1930s and became popular in South Africa in the early 70s FLOW has
pioneered and introduced much advancement in this technology. FLOW SORT
‘XR’ diamond recovery machines are designed to sort WET or DRY
diamondiferous material, under virtually any conditions. Model XR400DW
is the latest addition to the FLOW SORT sorting machine stable.All FLOW
SORT models are equally suitable for ‘fixed’ installations as for
‘mobile’ plants, be it on terra firma or on board a ‘marine’
diamond-mining vessel.Since the launch of FLOW’S “XR” sorter range in
1993, FLOW has sold over 600 units to diamond miners and diggers all
over the world.
CONTAINERISED FLOW X-RAY DIAMOND RECOVERY PLANTS are specifically designed to sort WET (or
DRY) diamondiferous material. FLOW offers containerized X-ray recovery
plants fitted with one or two SINGLE STAGE MODELS coded as XR 2/50 DW or
alternatively fitted with one or two TWIN-STAGE MODELS (double pass
sorters) labelled TSXR 2/50 DW. Our container plant design follows the
same robustness, reliability, high recovery efficiency, easy operation
and low maintenance concept, as well as our uncompromising after sales
service that earned our products acceptance in the market place.
Can be made ready to transport or set-up for operation within 3 hours! Peace
of mind operation: can be fitted with a remote sorter / plant control
and monitoring system flow x-ray diamond recovery trailer plants are
specifically designed to sort WET (or DRY) diamondiferous material. FLOW offers X-ray recovery trailer plants fitted with one SINGLE STAGE MODEL coded as XR 2/50 DW Our TRAILER design follows the same robustness, reliability, high recovery efficiency, easy operation and low maintenance concept, as well as our uncompromising after sales service that earned our products acceptance in the market place. Optionally FLOW X-RAY DIAMOND RECOVERY TRAILER PLANTS can be supplied with an integral diesel generator power-plant. Emergency 12 Volt lights are standard on our trailer X-ray plants.
By now I am in the electronic sorting business for 35 years. Coming
from an electronic background, I have learned very quickly that an
electronic sorting machine would only sort as well as its feed
presentation! And this principle held true throughout my career in
electronic sorting. It was not the sophistication of electronic systems,
the design and selection of appropriate sensors, the precision and
speed of ejection devices or the writing of clever algorithms that made
for a good sorter. Yes, all these devices and systems are important
in the design of an electronic sorting machine, but no matter what
sorting problem I had to tackle (Uranium, Gold, Scrap-Metal, Limestone,
Talcum, Coffee Beans, Nuts, Beans, Diamonds, and so on...) I only
succeeded to produce a successful sorter if I was able to feed the material in a “satisfactory manner”.
In every diamond mine or diamond digging no matter how large or small
there is a stage that finishes off the diamond recovery process, THE
FINAL DIAMOND RECOVERY STAGE. Any diamond mining operation has put a
lot of effort and money into each diamond that finally ends up in the
final recovery section of the plant. It is therefore of utmost
importance that all precautions necessary are taken to ensure no
diamonds get lost at this vital stage. Today all the necessary final diamond recovery equipment, for any diamond mining operation, is readily available.
One of the most important operating parameters of our Flow Sort X-
Ray diamond recovery machines is the feed presentation to these sorters.
Poor feed preparation will lead, without fail, to poor diamond recovery
efficiency. Feed preparation starts with proper feed material sizing
and feed material cleaning. For appropriate size range refer to the
relevant sorter model specifications. Please note that “dirty” feed
water, excessive “free” water flow to the sorter with the feed material
will most definitely effect the diamond recovery efficiency of our
diamond recovery machines!
One of the most serious operating problems of any x-ray florescence
based diamond recovery machine is the possibility of passing to much
material “KILOGRAMS PER HOUR” through the sorter ...‟Over feeding‟ the
sorter. Even when the sorter is properly adjusted there are factors,
essentially out side the machine operators control them can lead to
over-feeding. For instance a change in material particle size
distribution, a change in feed material loose water content, variations
in material cleanliness (a problem very common with kimberlite) etc. The
most common problem however is the deliberate increase of sorters feed
rate beyond its maximum capacity in order to treat more material, end a
shift more quickly or simply make up for production shortfall (usually
caused by various plant breakdowns).
This write-up is not intended to explain and reason WHY and WHEN a
FLOW SORT X-RAY DIAMOND RECOVERY MACHINE should be fitted with an
optical band-pass filter such as our K45 or our K42. The following is
intended to explain and quantify the effects that such filters have on
the set-up of our sorters. A FLOW SORT TRACER-MARBLE typically produces a
luminescence level of 2.5 μlm (micro-lumen) when it passes through the
X-ray beam of a Flow Sort machine. (Note that only a small portion of
this luminescence actually reaches the PM-tube, without any optical
filter fitted! This amount of luminescence will generate, depending on
how sensitive the PM-tube is set, a signal of say 1.5 μA (note that a
signal > 1.0 μA is required to trigger the sorters ejector).
Each Flow Sort Diamond Recovery Machine provides for a remote sorter control. . The
purpose of this interface facility is to allow basic sorter operation
to be executed from a remote sorter / plant control centre. The
interface caters for sorter control inputs as well as for sorter
interlock / sorter operation status outputs.
It is assumed that the person executing the set-up procedure is has
read through the “FLOW SORT DIAMOND SORTER MANUAL” and is fully familiar
with the operation of the FLOW SORT DIAMOND RECOVERY MACHINE MODEL to
be set up! It is further assumed that the sorter to be set-up is 100%
functional and there is no possibility that the sorter‟s diamond
recovery efficiency may be impaired by faulty components, faulty
sub-assembly or simply by a poor general state of sorter due to lack of
The secret in the design of the Optic Window frame (Flow part number
4960) in a Flow Sort machine is the correct combination of components
that will give the required optical clarity, a minimum of
self-luminescence , produce the correct bonding to the stainless steel
frame to ensure 100% waterproofing and at the same time have the same
wear characteristics as the surrounding stainless steel feed-slide. This
may sound simpler than it is! Flow has developed and improved this
critical sorter part over several years. Feed optic window frames
manufactured by Flow are designed to meet these requirements. The
polyurethane used by us has been specifically formulated for Flow, there
is no such substitute product on the market.
First of all consider the following: a. X–ray diamond recovery machines are the last and final link in the entire diamond mining process. b. A lot of mining costs are incurred by the time the final diamond concentrate reaches the X–ray diamond recovery stage. c.
It is therefore obvious that these X-ray diamond recovery machines must
at all times operate at absolutely peak performance to ensure that no
diamonds report to tailings.
For details regarding the electric power requirements of FLOW SORT
machines please refer to the relevant technical specification.Typically
our sorters require 3 Phases, 380 Volt, 50 Hertz power. 3 phases,
neutral, earth On request we have supplied sorters for different
voltages (190V, 415V, 550V etc) as well as different frequencies (60
Hertz). What is of importance is whatever the nominal supply voltage,
this voltage remains within specified limits and there is a sound earth
connection! The potential between neutral and earth should be 0 (zero)
but must never exceed 1 (one) volt.
ONLY PERSONNEL PROPERLY TRAINED AND QUALIFIED IN THE HANDLING AND
MAINTENANCE OF HIGH VOLTAGE EQUIPMENT AND X-RAY GENERATING EQUIPMENT MAY
CARRY OUT THE WORK HEREAFTER DESCRIBED. The high voltage
connection from the x-ray generator to the x-ray tube is made via a high
voltage cable and a special high voltage cable adaptor.
1. YOU ARE OVER-FEEDING YOUR SORTER a. Refer to the maximum permissible feed rate specification 2. YOUR FEED MATERIAL SIZE RANGE IS TOO LARGE a. Refer to the recommended material size range specification 3. YOUR WATER FLOW SET-UP AND WATER FLOW VOLUME IS WRONG a. Check as per Flow Sort specifications
BACKGROUND a. Flow Sort diamond recovery machines employ a
different x-ray – optic geometry as compared to other x-ray diamond
recovery machine makes and models. b. The Flow Sort x-ray / optics
geometry is such that optical luminescence detection of a particle is
taking place on side opposite to the side irradiated with x-rays. This
Flow Sort design concept has got several advantages over traditionally
employed geometry whereby a particles luminescence is detected at the
same side as irradiated by x-rays. c. One of the major advantages of
the Flow Sort concept is the ability to distinguish between surface
luminescence of a particle and luminescence of a diamond.
GENERAL SECTION 1. Page 1 must be completed after each and every site/service visit no matter what!!!! 2. Page 2 must be completed when optic, ejector, x-ray, and feed system is updated. 3. Enter the date when this record is being made 4. Enter the FLOW SORT machine model number.