Risk Based Inspection (RBI) is a risk based approach to prioritizing and planning inspection used in engineering industries, and predominant in the oil and gas industries. This type of inspection planning analyses the probability (or likelihood) and consequence of failure of an asset to calculate its risk of failure. The level of risk is used to develop a prioritised inspection plan for the asset. It is related to (or sometimes a part of) Risk Based Asset Management (RBAM), Risk Based Integrity Management (RBIM) and Risk Based Management (RBM).
It is used to prioritise inspection, usually by means of non-destructive testing (NDT), requirements for major oil platforms, refineries and chemical installations around the world. The resulting inspection plan outlines the type and frequency of inspection for the asset. It is used for industrial pipework, process systems, pipelines, structures and many other types of assets in these industries.
Items with high probability and high consequence (i.e. high risk) are given a higher priority for inspection than items that are high probability but for which failure has low consequences. This strategy allows for a rational investment of inspection resources.
Following an explosion in April 2001, the ConocoPhillips-owned Humber Refinery in the United Kingdom was found guilty of failing to appropriately monitor the deterioration of its pipework. An RBI programme has since been employed by the company.
Risk Based Inspection is an inspection planning tool rated under Risk and Reliability Management (RRM).